|About the Team||Team||Country||Country flag||Team Website(s)|
|Bioeconomy Institute Carbon Removal Team||United States||biorenew.iastate.edu|
|The Bioeconomy Institute Carbon Removal Team’s approach to carbon removal harnesses the natural power of photosynthesis to remove carbon from the atmosphere as plant material. However, rather than sequester this carbon as standing biomass as occurs in forests, we carbonize part of it into a solid known as biochar for land application. Biochar is resistant to weathering and biological attack, allowing sequestration of this biogenic carbon for hundreds or even thousands of years. Accordingly, the incorporation of biochar into agriculture lands represents net removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The amount of carbon that can be sequestered in this manner depends on the type of biomass and the kind of pyrolysis process employed. Over the course of a single year, our demonstration project will sequester as much as 4600 tons of carbon dioxide equivalent in the form of recalcitrant biochar that is projected to be stable in agricultural soils for hundreds of years or longer.|
Although others have advocated biochar as an approach to carbon removal from the atmosphere, our project has several novel features: (1) our pyrolyzer is operated autothermally, eliminating the need for fossil fuels to heat it while simplifying and intensifying the production of biochar; (2) we produce bio-oil as a co-product, which makes the process more economical than simply producing biochar as a carbon sequestration agent; (3) our system is of modular design, which allows construction of small plants suitably sized for distributed biomass resources; (4) we employ a plentifully produced crop residue as biomass feedstock; and (5) sequestration of biochar in cropland provides multiple environmental and economic benefits.
|Calcite Carbon Removal||United States||8rivers.com|
|For the X Prize competition, 8 Rivers plants to deploy Calcite, its direct air capture technology to remove thousands of tonnes of CO2 from the air. Calcite passes air over calcium hydroxide to turn CO2 into stone, similar to how concrete and mortar cure, and that CO2 is eventually sequestered underground. 8 Rivers invented the Calcite technology in 2019, and in 2020 8 Rivers in partnership with Massachusetts Institute of Technology was awarded an $810,000 ARPA-E grant that involves advancing the costing and design of the process. In 2021, 8 Rivers began finalizing the site for a pilot-scale first deployment for the X Prize. In Q4 of 2021 8 Rivers and a prominent National Laboratory began collaborating to provide scientific validation of the process with a 6 month validation program, where Lab scientists have begun conducting testing. 8 Rivers has experimentally demonstrated this system, showcasing rapid CO2 absorption is achievable with simple low-cost equipment.|
|Captura is developing CO2 capture and sequestration technology for extracting CO2 from oceanwater that is scalable to Mton/year - Gton/year to meet the rapidly growing demand in the carbon credit market. Captura’s approach leads capture of high-purity CO2 and restores pH balance in oceanwater.|
|Carbin Minerals unlocks the enormous potential of mine tailings to capture and permanently sequester carbon dioxide. With our proprietary technology, mine sites can remove more CO2 than they emit, while also producing the metals essential for the energy transition.|
|Carbyon develops the next generation of equipment to capture CO2 directly out of ambient air. Our breakthrough technology enables extreme energy efficiency and low manufacturing costs. This turns it into an economically viable carbon removal solution that can be scaled up worldwide, on any location with only a small footprint.|
|Global Algae Innovations||United States||globalgae.com|
|There is great interest in reforestation as a means to capture and sequester carbon dioxide. This approach is an essential component of almost all IPCC pathways to achieve our climate goals. The tropical rainforests are the regions where this approach has the greatest impact. Unfortunately, simply buying and preserving land that had been deforested will not have any net impact. The enormous economic and food security forces that drive deforestation will cause additional forest to be lost to compensate for the restored area. Unless these root causes of deforestation are addressed, efforts to sequester carbon through reforestation will be in vain.|
So what are the root causes of deforestation? In the Amazon rainforest it is protein production. Either rainforest is lost to soy production directly or soy production takes over pasture land, and rainforest is lost to replace the pasture land. In Southeast Asia, it is palm oil production. Palm oil is the lowest cost edible oil, so it's use is prolific in food and consumer products. Over half of the products on supermarket shelves in the developed world contain palm oil. However, soy and palm oil are not the cause of the problem, they were the answer to the problem. Soy is by far the most productive land plant for edible protein at more than double the next best option, and palm is by far the most productive land plant for edible oil at over four times the next best option. Soy and palm have saved the environment as the world's population and food demand have grown exponentially and have delivered economic benefits and reduced poverty to the developing world. Unfortunately, our planet is stretched nearly to the limit, and demand for protein and palm oil is expected to more than double by 2050, so a new, better solution is needed.
This project brings the solution to deforestation, and combines it with regrowth of rainforest for megaton scale carbon dioxide capture and long-term sequestration.
The solution to deforestation is cultivation of algae for simultaneous production of edible protein and oil. Algae farming is 25 times more productive than soy and palm oil, so communities can restore the environment, prosper economically, and meet the world's growing protein and oil demand. Each acre of algae will produce protein equivalent to 17 acres of soy and vegetable oil equivalent to 8 acres of palm, so 25 times less land is required for production of these important commodities.
The project includes buying land in South America currently used for protein production, allowing the rainforest to regrow on most of the land, and growing algae on a small portion such that the total protein production is the same as could be produced from all of the land with conventional crops. Because the protein production remains the same, the forces that would cause other areas to be deforested to make up for the lost agricultural are addressed; and because the algae farm will generate revenue from oil sales as well as the protein, 6 times more revenue will be generated for the local community than could be generated from all of the land with conventional crops, so the project will create higher paying jobs and a better standard of living. Thus, both the economic and food security forces driving deforestation are addressed by the project enabling the forest regrowth to be sustainable for the foreseeable future without simply causing deforestation elsewhere.
The project sequesters carbon dioxide in two ways. Firstly, the algae cultivation directly captures carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, and a portion of the algal oil is converted into polymer products for long-term sequestration of the carbon. Secondly, the rainforest regrowth will capture carbon dioxide and store it in both above ground and below ground biomass. The initial megaton project will capture and sequester 12 million metric tons per year, 1 million tons in polymer products and 11 million tons in rainforest regrowth.
This project is possible because of dozens of innovations and major breakthroughs in algae farming and processing developed and demonstrated by Global Algae Innovations over the past eight years at an 8-acre algae farm in Kauai. As a result of these advances, the revenue from the oil and protein is high enough to make the project profitable, so megatons of carbon dioxide are captured and sequestered without any need for a carbon credit or subsidy.
|Heirloom & Carbfix||United States||heirloomcarbon.com|
|Heirloom and Carbfix will combine to build a direct air capture system paired with sequestration via mineralization.|
Heirloom captures CO2 from the atmosphere by accelerating the natural properties of abundant, affordable rocks. We place these rocks in a low-cost, passive, engineered system that maximizes the surface area of the minerals exposed to the atmosphere. This simple, modular system has the lowest peer reviewed cost of any direct air capture system in the world, with potential to achieve gigaton scale at well under $100/ton.
The Carbfix process injects water-dissolved CO2 and turns it into stone underground in under two years through technology that imitates and accelerates natural processes, providing a permanent and safe carbon storage solution. Robust research and innovation based on subsurface geochemical processes laid the foundation for injection of dissolved CO2 into basaltic formations for safe and permanent mineralization. The company’s mission is to become a key instrument in tackling the climate crisis by reaching 1 GtCO2 of permanently stored CO2, captured from various sources, in 2030.
The XPRIZE removal project will be carried out in an already developed site in Iceland made up of fresh volcanic basalts which has been confirmed to rapidly mineralize CO2 underground in a number of peer-reviewed publications. A co-located geothermal power plant provides renewable baseload electricity, low-grade heat and water.
|Marine Permaculture SeaForestation||United States||climatefoundation.org|
|Marine Permaculture Seaforestation accesses deepwater nutrients to enhance the growth of macroalgae, fixing carbon in ocean waters. Doing so can enable the cultivation of seaweeds at scale offshore in mostly empty ocean ordinarily deprived of nutrients and where there is little primary productivity. Seaweeds grown on our platforms can be harvested to create biostimulants, providing sustainable revenues to support operations. During growth significant amounts of biomass fall off seaweed lines naturally and then sink rapidly to the seafloor enabling them to be sequestered long-term for hundreds to thousands of years.|
|We extract carbon from agricultural waste in tropical developing countries, and convert it into a permanent soil amendment (biochar) and green energy. The long-term carbon sequestration effect of biochar allows the carbon-dioxyde removal effect.|
We operate a unique model, leveraging proven technologies and own R&D, that maximises social and climate impact and allows for scale-up.
We just completed the construction of our first at-scale pilot site.
|The oceans are our biggest lever in the fight against climate change. They are the largest reservoir of carbon on the earth's surface and have already absorbed a third of our emissions. This has resulted in harmful impacts to marine ecosystems as a result of ocean acidification.|
At Planetary Hydrogen we are commercializing a technology that removes carbon from the air and permanently stores it in seawater chemistry by restoring local ocean pH. This is known as ocean alkalinity enhancement (OAE).
We begin by producing low-carbon alkalinity using mine tailings, renewable power and water. In the process, we generate valuable co-products like hydrogen and battery metals necessary for decarbonization. The flexibility of our platform allows us to use various types of mine waste of which there are hundreds of billions of tonnes worldwide already dug up out of the ground.
In short, Planetary’s platform has four benefits: It removes carbon from the atmosphere and permanently stores it with ocean chemistry; It produces valuable by-products necessary for decarbonization; it remediates mine waste; and, it reduces local ocean acidification helping to restore marine ecosystems.
|PlantVillage||United States||plantvillage.psu.edu carbon4good.net|
|Carbon4Good will leverage the power of 200 million African farms to permanently sequester 1 gigatonne/year while lifting a whole generation out of the cycle of poverty.|
|Project Hajar||United Kingdom||project-hajar.com|
|Project Hajar is a joint project between Mission Zero Technologies and 44.01. It connects two complementary technologies to unlock gigatons of CO2 removal in the Al Hajar mountains, Oman. We are combining DAC with permanent sequestration via mineralisation in geological formations in a process solely powered by renewables. CO2 is energy-efficiently collected from the air and then transferred to peridotite underground. Here, the natural weathering process is enhanced with the fastest mineral carbonation rates ever known.|
|The Sustaera team has developed a novel technology for the Direct Air Capture (DAC) of CO2 powered entirely by carbon-free electricity using an abundantly available, low-cost capture agent (alkali metal based) in a modular design that can work in any geographic location in a wide range of ambient temperatures and humidity. Our engineered solution for DAC consumes < 100 acres of land per million metric tons/year (MTPA) of CO2 sequestered, significantly lower than land-based or natural CO2 capture methods, to provide a platform technology for gigatons of CO2 removal and permanent storage. Sustaera aims to remove 500 million tons of CO2 over the next 20 years.|
|Takachar (Safi Organics)||Kenya||takachar.com|
|We use MIT technology to build a decentralized IoT-enabled reactor network to rapidly and profitably scale biochar deployment without being dependent on carbon offset credits. Our patent-pending, low-cost, and portable hardware and control systems enable village-based production of customizable biochar-based fertilizers using locally available crop residues and labor. The resultant standalone, government-certified fertilizer blend helps farmers improve their by up to 30% and net income by 50%, making the unit economics of the supply chain work and scale up without reliance on subsidies or carbon credits. By enabling rural smallholder farmers access to carbon removal credits, our solution overwhelmingly benefits traditionally underserved communities, thereby also advancing climate justice.|
|Verdox & Carbfix||United States||verdox.com|
|Verdox and Carbfix are joining forces to electrochemically remove CO2 from the atmosphere and turn it into stone below the earth’s surface. The joint project will reverse over 1,000 metric tons of historical CO2 emissions each year and will be powered entirely by renewable electricity.|
Verdox’s electrical carbon capture technology, originating from cutting edge research at MIT, uses only electricity as an input and requires no waste heat or water. This significantly reduces energy consumption and cost relative to existing solutions while eliminating potential negative side effects.
Carbfix provides a natural and permanent storage solution by turning CO2 into stone underground. This method accelerates nature’s way of storing carbon in rocks and requires significantly less capital than traditional geological sequestration approaches.
With this project, Verdox and Carbfix will implement an efficient, economic, and highly scalable DACCS solution, demonstrating the enormous potential of electrochemical carbon capture and mineralization for climate restoration.
|About the Team||Team||University||Country||Country flag||Meet the Team|
|Answer of Biochar (AOB)||Northeastern University, China||China||Video|
|We propose a process route that can significantly improve the economics and scalability of biochar preparation by converting the by-products of biochar production into high value added products with a large market.|
|BioCORE||Technical University of Munich||Germany||Video|
|The BioCORE process employs a novel system design for high-temperature Solid Oxide Cells with complete fuel utilization and CO2-separation. It can operate either as fuel cell, producing electricity, or as electrolysis unit in the first economically viable Power-to-Gas process. It can switch between both modes within seconds and stabilizes future net-zero energy systems based on non-reliable photovoltaic and wind power. As fuel cell, the innovative BioCORE technology converts valuable biogas into electricity with record-breaking efficiency (80% electrical), while separating pure CO2, thereby enabling negative emissions at large scale. During electrolysis, BioCORE plants produce hydrogen and solve long-term energy storage issues.|
|Biosorra||Iese Business School, Fuqua School of Business||Spain||Video|
|In Sub-Saharan Africa the soil is sick. Having supply shortage and hence a direct impact in malnutrition. Burning your field is a quick way to clear farm waste and provide some nutrients to the soil, but it degrades the land. Farmers' lands in Ghana and Kenya are becoming less fertile and producing fewer crops, meaning lower income for the farmers, to spend in, modern equipment or sustainable farming techniques. This is the vicious cycle of land degradation. We break the cycle. We transform crop waste into crop yield by creating a soil improver, that leads to healthier and sustainable soil.|
|Bison Underground||Independent from, but affiliated with University of Oklahoma||United States||Video|
|Farming is a vital part of the global economy, but it also produces a large amount of carbon, adding to the mounting levels in our atmosphere. Our project takes unusable organic material, like stalks and leaves, and turns it in a nutrient-rich mix to add back deep into farming soil. This limits the addition of new carbon to the atmosphere, and also helps farmers to have better yields (facilitating new plants to capture carbon more efficiently), supports communities to be more resilient against extreme weather events (which will intensify with climate change), and promotes food diversity and security for all.|
|Blue Symbiosis||University of Tasmania, IMAS, AMC||Australia, Launceston, Tasmania||Video|
|Blue Symbiosis Repurposes oil and gas infrastructure as a stepping stone to scaling seaweed production offshore. We have a data-driven approach and believe in facing challenging conditions in order to learn to scale seaweed growth beyond the coast. We will store carbon in by using seaweed as the basis for fireproof building materials.|
|C2 (C-Squared)||Virginia Tech, Max Planck Institute||United States, Germany||Video|
|We capture carbon by crowdfarming bamboo. We store carbon by building bamboo houses. We transform the World's housing deficit into a Giga Carbon Warehouse. Our team's principle is: work at the speed and with the qualities of light. In our platform Farmers find Know-how, Know-where (to grow bamboo) data. Additionally, provides them access to local Manufacturing units and the marketplace, improving their income. Architects, Designers, Engineers and Entrepreneurs: find a toolkit for transforming Bamboo into valuable and long-lasting products. The toolkit can be deployed in an affordable and modular fashion, based on geolocation of bamboo plantations.|
|Carbon Down Under||Southern Illinois University, Carbondale||United States||Video|
|Growing plants naturally take CO2 out of the atmosphere. Gigatonnes of plant waste is produced annually as an agricultural byproduct. Instead of allowing this waste to rot and return to the atmosphere as CO2, we propose to convert it into a concentrated tea-like solution and sequester it deep underground. The process that does this uses only water, oxygen, and heat to break down the biomass into water soluble products that can easily be injected deep underground where the carbon will be consumed by subsurface microbes and locked away where it can do no more harm to our climate.|
|CyanoCapture||University of Oxford||United Kingdom||Video|
|CyanoCapture is an award-winning startup providing large-scale, affordable carbon capture to polluting industries. Using the power of modern biotechnology, the team at Oxford University are creating genetically modified (GM) microalgae that have been shown to rapidly absorb CO2 continously convert this into biomass and oils. CO2 leaving power stations and factories are funnelled directly into CyanoCapture installations, where the gas is bubbled through an extensive network of large raceway ponds containing densely packed GM cyanobacteria. Each 650m x 800m CyanoCapture site is estimated to capture 100,000 tonnes CO2/year.|
|E-quester||University of Toronto||Canada||Video|
|The E-quester team has developed a novel carbon dioxide (CO2) direct air capture (DAC) system which is 16% more energy efficient than current commercial systems. Our DAC system captures CO2 from the atmosphere by blowing air through a capture solution. Then, the CO2 is released from the capture solution through a pH-swing which allows pure gaseous CO2 to exit the system and the capture solution to be regenerated in our innovative Hybrid Electrochemical Regeneration System. This process is entirely electricity driven and can be combined with renewable electricity for minimum carbon emission. The captured CO2 can then be permanently stored.|
|Holocene Climate||Stanford University||United States||Video|
|Holocene designs and builds chemical plants that remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere using a novel low-temperature aqueous solvent, with the purpose of storing the CO2 underground permanently through mineralization. Our team of (mainly) Stanford graduate students brings a unique mix of research, commercialization, business development, and financial expertise to the project.|
|KFC||Hohai University, Tianjin University, Shanghai Ocean University, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences||China||Video|
|1. Combine deep-water mooring and anchor technology with seaweed aquaculture beds. Mooring and anchor technology has been widely used in oil and gas mining platforms, ocean drilling, et al. This project can use this technology to extend seaweed pastures to deeper and further seas and achieve large-scale planting. |
2. Using biological carbon sequestration-the mechanism of seaweed carbon sequestration to achieve carbon removal. Seaweed has an efficient carbon fixation capacity, and the economic value of seaweed additional products is high.
|Mississippi State Energy Club - BECReative Energy||Mississippi State University||United States||Video|
|BECReative Energy's goal is to produce renewable energy by utilizing nature's ability to capture and fix CO2, reducing atmospheric CO2. Our team has a passion to join the fight against climate change, and we believe that the gasification of biomass to produce energy while capturing carbon is a solution that with potential for exponential growth. The XPRIZE student award allows our team of both graduate and undergraduate STEM students to continue our research in gasification and secure funding for equipment and resources. This enables one of our undergraduate members to pursue graduate level studies and research to scale our project.|
|Monash Carbon Capture and Conversion (BioTech)||Monash University||Australia||Video|
|The amalgamation of independent biological systems that combine to provide efficient and effective carbon removal. With a focus on the development of sustainable and durable solutions to carbon capture, utilisation and storage, Monash Carbon Capture and Conversion presents a solution that facilitates the collaboration of forests and microalgae to generate beneficial organic matter in the form of biochar and engineered timber. Working out of a single facility, our solution centres on the minimisation of waste generation and overall carbon footprint through the use of waste products and renewable energy sources.|
|SASIITB||Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay||India||Video|
|BECCS (Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Sequestration) is one of the most prominent carbon dioxide removal technologies. The concept used in our study combines BECCS technology with mineralization for capture and permanent sequestration of the CO2. The process allows for capture of CO2 from the flue gas emitted by biomass based industries and the mineralization of the waste(s) generated from the same industry by reacting the waste with the CO2 rich solvent, while also simultaneously regenerating the solvent. The mineralization of the waste(s) results in the permanent sequestration of CO2 due to the formation of stable mineral carbonates.|
|Skyrenu Technologies||Universite De Sherbrooke and Inrs-Eau Terre Environnement Research Centre||Canada||Video|
|We propose an integrated capture and sequestration system comprising a novel modular direct-air capture device whose high-concentration gaseous CO2 output is used for the on-site carbonation of mine waste. Our systems can be directly installed at mine waste sites, thereby eliminating the need to transport CO2 or mineral feedstock over long distances. We plan to first install our systems at abandoned asbestos mine sites in the province of Quebec in Canada, where 2 Gt of existing mine tailings offer a CO2 sequestration potential of about 700 MtCO2, and where the process will be powered by the 100% renewable Hydro-Quebec grid.|
|Sydney Sustainable Carbon||University of Sydney||Australia||Video|
|Our carbon removal solution involves Direct Air Capture of CO2 (DAC) coupled with deep underground permanent storage. Each DAC module will capture two tonnes of CO2/year, be solar powered and deployed in their millions. This solution is hugely scalable with Australia's vast area of non-arable land, high solar intensity and estimated underground storage of over 400 billion tonnes of CO2, 800 times Australia's yearly emissions. Our unique DAC adsorbent is based on a nanomaterial whose properties can be finely tuned and which can be manufactured at low cost. Several gigascale manufacturing facilities are planned in regional areas throughout Australia.|
|Takachar (Safi Organics)||University of British Columbia, Northeastern University, IISC Bangalore||Canada, Kenya, United States||Video|
|Traditionally, chemical fertilizers are produced in large-scale, centralized locations and imported. Due to long-distance logistics, rural farmers often pay 2-5 times the world price for low-quality fertilizers susceptible to misapplication and soil degradation. Our MIT-developed technology enables rapid and profitable scaling of soil carbon sequestration via decentralized, cost-competitive, biochar-based fertilizers improving farmers' yields by 27%. This is done through small-scale, low-cost, portable systems that can latch onto the back of tractors and utilize locally available crop residues/labor, thereby eliminating the biochar distribution costs. Our product has improved the net income of ~1,000 farmers in our pilot by up to 50%.|
|UW-Madison Civil and Environmental Engineering||University of Wisconsin, Madison||United States||Video|
|Our technology utilizes industrial waste materials to directly capture CO2 from the atmosphere. The CO2 is then stored as a stable mineral. This process occurs at ambient conditions and doesn't need any heat input or pressurization, thereby reducing costs and emissions which gives us a higher net sequestration of CO2. In addition to safely and permanently sequestering CO2, the processed waste materials can be further utilized for construction, providing additional economic and environmental benefits.|
|About the Team||Team||University||Country||Country flag||Meet the Team|
|ACIDD PROJECT||University of Miami||United States||Video|
|Our solution is to create and distribute "green hydroxide", a form of alkalinity that when added to the ocean, both removes CO2 and buffers against acid, actively fighting ocean acidification. In creating this hydroxide, hydrogen gas and carbon credits are generated as byproducts. We are supported by Planetary Hydrogen, the producers of this alkalinity. Our labs based out of the Rosenstiel School for Marine and Atmospheric Sciences will be used to test the effects of alkalinity enhancement on the environment, specifically on coral and fish health. Our team mentor, Dr. Chris Langdon has already seen promising results in preliminary testing.|
|BJU Global Challenges||Bob Jones University||United States||Video|
|Our team will develop a verification technology to ensure that carbon that is removed from the air and stored in soil remains in soil. Starting with a low-cost sensor prototype described in the literature, we will add longer battery life, wireless data logging, and weatherproofing to produce a commercially viable and more widely useful product. Multiple sensors in a field will send data on CO2 respiration levels wirelessly to a central database. By collecting data from multiple sensors distributed throughout a field, the system can display a contour map of the field's CO2 levels.|
|Environmental Sensing||University of Wyoming||United States||Video|
|Our project affordably measures CO2 in the natural world to find any changes that could occur at carbon storage sights. These changes could indicate human-caused change in the area from carbon storage as well as any natural changes that could affect the sites used for carbon storage. There is risk in carbon capture and storage should the sites leak, and our technology can detect any potential leaks immediately to allow rapid responses to any carbon storage sites.|
|PlantVillage||Pennsylvania State University||United States||Video|
|Terrestrial carbon sequestration requires a transparent, low cost system that results in both an accurate and transparent system to measure not only how much carbon is being pulled down but which areas of the world are our best bets for cost effective drawdown. Here we will use the global platform, PlantVillage, which is an award winning tool used by the UN across 60 countries. This platform integrates phone based AI systems based on computer vision and cloud based systems that integrate multiple satellite streams and soil databases.|
|Working Trees||Stanford University||United States||Video|
|Working Trees mission is to deploy trees where the interests of farmers and the climate overlap. We are developing a technology platform that democratizes access to carbon markets for landowners of all sizes by leveraging smartphone LiDAR, satellite remote sensing data, and machine learning models. Our starting focus is on the potential for establishing trees on pasture land in the US Southeast.|